Graphic Design


A Brief History Of Graphic Design

By: Rachel Mork
The history of graphic design goes back to drawings on cave walls and decorations on pottery. Graphic designers have been jazzing up stuff to sell or laying out pages for writing as long as words have been written down and merchandise has been advertised. However, the formal history of graphic design-meaning the term "graphic design" and the profession that has since ensued-came about in the early 20th century. The professional label "graphic designer" gained popularity in both book design and general print design at the same time, making it difficult to pinpoint exactly who coined the term.
Innovations In Typography: In the 1920s, graphic designers began claiming various fonts, logos, stamps and typography techniques as their own signature styles. Jan Tschichold recorded several of the commonly used fonts in his book New Typography in 1928. Many of the typography techniques developed in the 1920s caught on, forming the foundation for general font typography even today.
The Rise Of Mass Media: As the 1900s progressed, graphic design gained new popularity as all kinds of advertising, packaging and print became widely available. As demand for advertising, books, movies, magazines and newspapers increased, the position as a graphic designer became more popular in print shops, corporations and the entertainment world. Print shops needed graphic designers for everything from marketing materials to newspapers to books. Film makers needed graphic designers for cinema and later television. Everyday corporations needed graphic designers for brochures, newsletters, advertisements, logos and signs.
Graphic Design Schools: Graphic design firms sprang up in response to the increased demand for artistic layout of ads and print materials. The first graphic design school, Bauhaus, was founded in 1919 in Germany, and was quickly followed by graphic design schools around the world. In the 1950s, logos became the big deal, as branding through a logo gained popularity. This is when still-popular logos were established, such as the IBM logo still used today.
Computers: In the 1960s, computers entered the graphic design world, but it wasn't until the 1980s that computers became the standard for graphic designers. Today's graphic designers couldn't imagine working without a computer.

The College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences is intricately involved in the education of all undergraduate students at the university. Students develop essential skills in written and oral communication, critical thinking, analysis and synthesis, cultural and language appreciation, and an awareness of the value of the fine arts. This foundation is central to the University’s mission to “provide society with graduates who are both equipped to thrive in a competitive environment and educated to build a better civilization.” Our undergraduate students, across majors, learn to pursue their aspirations with a sense of their place in the world with a perspective on the past, and with an awareness of the ideas that can enrich their future, while our graduate students build on those developing skills to gain increased mastery in their respective disciplines, strengthening their own competencies and enhancing their personal and professional lives.
College Mission
The College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences is at the core of one of Georgia's most comprehensive universities. The primary goal of the college is to shape a dedication to investigation and creativity within liberal arts and social science disciplines and through general education offerings. This dedication involves all members of the College in a fundamental concern for excellence, innovation, and the pursuit of knowledge. The College encourages students to address the analytical, historical, cultural, and philosophical foundations of their disciplines. The faculty and administration of the College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences believe that such dedication and encouragement will result in graduates who will be vital, contributing members of the community who will, in turn, foster closer ties between the university and the public that supports it.
In its scholarship, research, and creative activities, the College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences demonstrates its commitment to a range of issues, applied and theoretical, public and private. The College accepts its mandate as an intellectual resource for southern Georgia and seeks to enrich the lives of those inside and outside Georgia Southern University by offering, through various media, the fruits of artistic, creative, and thoughtful expression. Faculty members also work in partnership with and serve as consultants to local, regional, and national groups. The disciplines represented within the College have historical roots that stretch back for centuries. Future-oriented, advanced work combines the best of this heritage with the complex modern world to provide students with a perspective of past experiences, present developments, and future possibilities. The humanities, social sciences and fine arts cooperate in the task of interpreting and understanding the human experience. This task brings together the liberal arts and social sciences to provide a central place within the university to investigate, ponder, and express creatively what is truly human.
Misson Summary Statement
Georgia Southern University is a predominately undergraduate university devoted to “teaching first,” a student-centered residential campus that nurtures a fulfilling college experience and a comprehensive institute that offers an array of masters’ degrees and selected doctoral degrees. The University’s breadth of nationally accredited academic programs in the liberal arts and professional studies attracts a statewide enrollment of undergraduate and graduate students. Our quest is to uplift our region’s educational attainment, cultural opportunities, economic growth, environmental quality, scientific and technological progress, and social and personal well-being. At the University’s core is excellent instruction, strengthened by research and service. We practice scholarship in many forms, including creative activity, discovery, integration, and application. The Georgia Southern experience promotes the development of students who value honesty, civility, and the dignity of work. Our mission is to graduate students who are knowledgeable, clear-thinking, articulate, and effective in problem-solving.


Personal Input - Graphic Design, as well as art in as a whole, started in the Paleolithic Age of art, when cave paintings and markings were being made. This form of art constantly evolved, and was also used across a variety of types of artwork. For example, pottery, sculpting, printing in books, playing cards, and even maps. Typography also contributed to the graphic design in an important way, because of how printing made distributing news easier. Therefore, Gutenberg developed the movable type and a printing in 1440 , which served a large role in developing the basic structure behind typography as well as graphic design. “Graphic designers have been jazzing up stuff to sell or laying out pages for writing as long as words have been written down and merchandise has been advertised. However, the formal history of graphic design-meaning the term "graphic design" and the profession that has since ensued-came about in the early 20th century. The professional label "graphic designer" gained popularity in both book design and general print design at the same time, making it difficult to pinpoint exactly who coined the term.“ (Mork)

Personal Input - Another School that I could have attended – SCAD
Although SCAD is claimed to be one of the best art schools in the state, let alone the nation; it has a lot of downfalls. For example, it's way too damn expensive, and it's also not accredited. It's a private school, so you can't use Hope Scholarship, and it's expensive in general. Despite if you live in Savannah or Atlanta, the costs of living are usually high. I took a week course at SCAD and it was definitely a brilliant experience.
Why should I stay at GSU?
To be honest, GSU wasn't everything that I expected when I came down to the college. I mean that in the best way possible, because it has surprised me positively. I wasn't expecting to find a club related to my career, which is game development. I figured that it couldn't be done, maybe the school wouldn't recognize it as a serious organization. Although, I came across a flyer for a game development club the first or second week of school. I thought why not, it could be a lot of fun. The decision I made to go to the first meeting of that club was one of the best decisions of my entire life. It sounds exaggerated, but through that club I have gotten a head start to my career in game development. I've been developing games, networking with employees in the industry, and studying how the industry works. I've gained so much experience over the past two semesters here that it's overwhelming. To be able to say I am an indie game developer is beyond me. Over the next few months or years, if everything works out, I could have a job internship at a company over time. Even without the internship, I will have strong connections at different companies throughout the game industry. I don't think any other school would be able to offer me this, even if it was a game development club similar to ours. I would have had to study programming and gone to Georgia Tech. Staying at GSU is the best option I have at the moment, and I'm infinitely thankful to be able to attend the university and club.
Example Text

Mork, Rachel.
"A Brief History Of Graphic Design." Life123. (2010): n. page. Web. 6 Feb. 2013. < design.shtml>.
"Mission of Graphic Design at GSU." Georgia Southern University. (2013): n. page. Web. 6 Feb. 2013. <>.

Blogs and/or Tutorials


ART 2233 - Computer Graphics
This is an introductory overview of computer-based imaging. Students will create and manipulate digital images.
ART 2330 - Typography I
Introduction to the basic foundations of typographic design. Creative solutions to typographical design problems will be explored, through the application of the practical and technical aspects of typography.
ART 2331 - Visual Th inking In Design
A general introduction to graphic design. The focus of this course will be on students’ development of their creativity and skills at effective visual communications, while also learning about general concepts and issues that
apply to the field of graphic design.
ART 3330 - Ne w Media Design
A study of the various aspects of new media design, specifically how formal aesthetic and concept is integrated with motion, sequence, duration, time and sound. Visual solutions will take shape in a non-print format that investigates how a user experiences new media differently than traditional media.
ART 3331 – Graphic Design Methods
An intermediate level course that focuses on a range of visual methods and problem-solving techniques developing a students’ intellectual ability to create dynamic yet functional visual solutions to a diverse range of design problems. Such methods can include, but are not limited to, rhetorical devices, narrative, and gestalt principles.
ART 3333 - Design Systems
A theoretical and practical investigation of visual strategies employed in creating
an extensive branding system. Emphasis will be placed on strategy, research
and design execution.
ART 3334 - Professional Practices
This advanced level course will cover the practical issues that confront
professional graphic designers today. Topics include job searching, freelancing,
contract negotiation, ownership of intellectual property, client dynamics,
presenting design solutions and other relevant issues. Students will learn to
prepare files for printing and apply professional standards within the graphic
design industry.
ART 3338 - Typography II
This course provides an advanced study of typographic systems, principles, and
usage with emphasis on refining student’s understanding of type aesthetics,
and its informative, expressive, and experimental potential in solving complex
communications problems. Students will use type as a visual form and visible
ART 3731 - Graphic Design Internship
Students will apply their skills and learn practices of the profession through a
professional experience in graphic design.
ART 4333 - Publication Design
This class investigates publication design as a vehicle for consolidating all
graphic design skills. Informed by tradition, as well as trend and its commercial
viability in publications, students develop visual expressions as they pertain to
journalistic philosophies, typography, photography, illustration, technology, time
and sequencing. Integrated style or identity will be examined and related to
various publications and view audiences, such as corporate reports and books,
museum exhibit catalogs and magazines.
ART 4335 - Web Page Design
The student will develop effective graphic design interfaces for website
construction. Course content will address software and technical information
with an emphasis on items such as site construction and site management, as
well as current and future developments in online services, search engines, and
how they affect the online community. Students will incorporate workflow and
organizational skills into an active online website for a variety of topics.
ART 4381 – Graphic Design Theories
An advanced level course that investigates in-depth theoretical and practical
issues concerning the design profession, meaningful communication, ethics,
and user-experience through the synthesis of visual and verbal solutions.
ART 4889 - Graphic Design Portfolio
The student will compile a professional portfolio and exhibit creative work to
the public.

+Research and Writing in the Discipline
here are some examples from this useful link:
Illustrator Document extension. See Illustrator.
Bleed is the part of a printed document that is outside the bounds of the final size of the piece. It is used to make sure images and other design elements print all the way to the edge of the paper. It is the designer’s responsibility to set up the bleed in a document and an accepted standard is 1p6, or 1/4 of an inch, outside the size of the paper. When placing objects in a document that must go all the way to the edge of the page, make sure they extend to at least this quarter inch mark. Photoshop and Illustrator do not have an automatic way to add bleed, so it must be taken into account when setting up the page size. In layout programs such as InDesign, the bleed is set up separately from the actual page size; in other words, the bleed is in addition to the defined page size.
Areas with heavy ink coverage can soak through thin paper and show up on the other side. This is not the same as being able to see the printing on the other side just because the paper is thin. With bleedthrough, the ink actually soaks into the paper and appears in dark blotches on the other side. Check for this at the press check.
The body of a layout (also called copy or body copy) is the main text.
CMYK stands for Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black (or Key), the colors a printer works with, as opposed to the screen color space, RGB. This is also known as process color. CMYK is a subtractive color space; in other words, to make white, you take away all the colors. There is a good description of the correspondence of CMY and RGB in The Quick and Easy Guide to Color Correction Part 2.
The process of an algorithm making file sizes smaller by combining similar data. Most of the time this is a good thing, but it can also cause severe loss of quality, especially in regards to images.
Also known as comprehensives, these are the step after thumbnails in the creative process. This is usually where the designs are taken into the computer and the details such as backgrounds, color schemes and images are more thoroughly worked out. Comps are the “first draft” of design. Many times designers show several different styles in comps to a client and let the client decide on a look and feel that he or she desires. Then the comps go back to the designer with some feedback and changes from the client and usually several rounds of this feedback process occur. Sometimes the client may ask (or the designer may want to present) mock-ups.
Images and/or text running across two or more pages. Look to see that they line up when you go to a press check.
Dots per inch is the more exact way to define the resolution for a file that is to be printed. Some use DPI and PPI interchangeably, though this is technically incorrect.
Elements of Design
The Elements of Design are Color, Shape, Size, Space, Line, Value and Texture
EPS stands for Encapsulated PostScript (not to be confused with ESP: Extra Sensory Perception). A common file format for exporting Illustrator files, it contains a bitmap preview of the image as well as instructions written in the PostScript language that describe how the object is to be printed. An EPS file is usually a vector, but sometimes people place photos in Illustrator and export them as an EPS, though I’m not sure why. Images for print should ideally be exported as TIFFs.
Technically, a font is the complete collection of characters and glyphs, including numbers, symbols, accented characters, punctuation marks, etc. in a given face design. A font also includes the design in various weights, such as bold or italic; it is more comprehensive and complicated to design than a typeface.
Freehand is the Macromedia equivalent of Adobe Illustrator.
Fireworks is the Macromedia equivalent of Adobe Photoshop.

Program Knowledge/Reference: Adobe Programs Preferred

examples: Photoshop, Illustrator, InDesign, etc

Publication Manual(s) and Style Guide(s)
General Rules below, and more in depth guide in link.
Consistency is key

Inconsistency can be a problem. It is crucial for a charity to not only communicate their message clearly – what they do, how they do it and who they do it for – but also to represent themselves visually in a consistent manner. Donors and other stakeholders need to be able to easily understand your case for support and also need to be able to recognise your good work and achievements. If you don’t effectively communicate what your nonprofit organisation stands for then you risk confusing your audience.

Create your style guide rules

Whenever my firm works on a branding project, our final delivery is always a graphic design style guide (alternately referred to as brand standards or brand guidelines). The overarching need for such a manual is so that, internally, your organisation has a set of rules by which to create consistent communication. The rules apply similarly to print and web usage – and PowerPoint, a branded mug, an advertisement on the side of a truck and any other media you can think of. In essence, the style guide protects your organisation’s message and your image.

Training ensures buy-in

Staff may need some instruction and help on how to implement their new style rules. For instance, along with the style guide, our clients receive a CD with their new logo in every possible file format necessary for use with the above media. And while the manual explains when and where it’s appropriate to use each file, some explanation could be helpful for those not familiar with print production processes, or web standards. Training will also help to get everyone on board, ensuring buy-in throughout the organisation for your new, or newly revised, visual identity.

Jobs and Careers: Graphic Designer for a company, Typographer, Web Designer/Layout, etc

ex: Description: Graphic Designer

Graphic Designer Job Purpose: Prepares visual presentations by designing art and copy layouts.
Graphic Designer Job Duties:
Prepares work to be accomplished by gathering information and materials.
Plans concept by studying information and materials.
Illustrates concept by designing rough layout of art and copy regarding arrangement, size, type size and style, and related aesthetic concepts.
Obtains approval of concept by submitting rough layout for approval.
Prepares finished copy and art by operating typesetting, printing, and similar equipment; purchasing from vendors.
Prepares final layout by marking and pasting up finished copy and art.
Ensures operation of equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; following manufacturer's instructions; troubleshooting malfunctions; calling for repairs; maintaining equipment inventories; evaluating new equipment.
Completes projects by coordinating with outside agencies, art services, printers, etc.
Maintains technical knowledge by attending design workshops; reviewing professional publications; participating in professional societies.
Contributes to team effort by accomplishing related results as needed.
Skills/Qualifications: Graphic Design Skills, Layout Skills, Creative Services, Customer Focus, Creativity, Flexibility, Attention to Detail, Deadline-Oriented, Desktop Publishing Tools, Acute Vision, Handles Rejection

Graduate School:

Georgia Southern University (current ) : has an amazing Graphic Design Program. Professors are always helpful, courses give students a lot of hands on experience with the programs essential in design.
Georgia State University
Full Sail University

Individual Responsibilities

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